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제목 The beginning of a case Jeju 4th and 3

Jeju 4th and 3

The beginning of a case


Jeju Island was a strategic base where 60,000 Japanese soldiers were stationed to deter U.S. troops from landing at the end of the Pacific War due to its geographical characteristics as a key hub of Northeast Asia, and after the August 15 Liberation Day, 60,000 Jeju residents who were out of the country were forced to return to their homes and suffered rapid changes in population. Those who returned to the country were unable to find a job and found it difficult to make a living, coupled with a shortage of daily necessities and the loss of hundreds of lives due to the outbreak of cholera, severe famine and food shortages caused by the failure of the rice policy, aggravated public sentiment. In addition, various social problems emerged, including the Japanese military police who were forced to serve as military police in charge of security under the U.S. military government, and the military and government officials engaged in corrupt practices to fill their interests even when people's livelihoods were in need. With such a mix of factors, the so-called "March 1 shooting incident" occurred in 1947 and served as the trigger for the April 3 incident in Jeju.


In 1945, Japanese soldiers were being withdrawn from Jeju Island.


On March 1, 1947, Jeju Civil War (short for the Democratic National Front) of the left-wing camp hosted commemorative rallies in various parts of the province to mark the 28th anniversary of the March 1 Independence Movement. After the ceremony at the Jeju National School, the crowd marched through the streets and a child watching from the square in front of Gwandeokjeong was injured when a horse mounted by the horse-riding. As the horse-riding police tried to keep it going, some crowds threw rocks and chased it away, and police who mistook it for a police raid opened fire on the crowd, killing six people and seriously injuring six others. Also, when the wounded, shot and bloody, were carried into the city hospital, a police officer in the city hospital, who was in the security service of his injured colleague, was terrified and shot and seriously injured two passers-by.


The Namro-dang Jeju Island Committee, which had been on the defensive due to the exposure of the organization at the time, formed a committee to fight against the March 1 Incident and systematically carried out anti-recession activities on March 5. Starting with the Jeju provincial government office on March 10, the government and private sector launched a general strike to protest the March 1 incident, and by March 13, about 95 percent of all workplaces in Jeju Island, or 166 organizations, joined the strike. On March 8, the U.S. military dispatched a joint investigation team led by Colonel James A. Casteel to investigate the situation. The U.S. military's intelligence report at the time stated that "Left and Right" were "exercisely participating" in the March 10 general strike, and that "Seventy percent of the population in Jeju is known as a base of leftists who are sympathetic to or are related to left-wing groups." The U.S. military government analyzed that the March 10 general strike was intensifying due to the people's antipathy toward the police in Jeju and the Namro Party's public instigation of such sentiment, but as a countermeasure, the government implemented a policy to focus on rooting out the leftists rather than trying to recover public sentiment by questioning the police's negligence.

the process of development

Cho Byung-ok, the head of the U.S. Military Government Administration's security affairs department who came down to Jeju on March 14, 1947, issued a proclamation saying that the March 1 incident was a form of riot and that he would use a large number of cheering policemen from other provinces to correct the disorderly state of Jeju with physical force. On March 15, about 200 people were arrested by March 18 for ordering the arrest of strike leaders, and there was a controversy that they were tortured in the process. The general strike on Jeju Island entered a calm phase in late March, but a massive crackdown by police authorities led to the detention of 2,500 people for about a year until shortly before the April 3, 1948. There were also frequent incidents of clashes between local residents and police after the March 1 incident, which led to the June Jongdal-ri Incident and the August Bukchon-ri Incident, including the March 1947 Udo Incident and Jungmun-ri Incident.


On Nov. 14, 1947, the U.N. General Assembly passed a U.S. proposal to hold a general election based on population proportion on the Korean Peninsula. With the possibility of the proposal being realized due to the Soviet rejection, South Korea's own independent election emerged, and some right-wing and middle-of-the-roaders fiercely protested the idea, not only on the left, but also on concerns that the Korean Peninsula would be permanently divided into the north and the south. As part of a strong struggle to block the single-party elections, the Namro Party staged a so-called "two-seven-country struggle" to stage a general strike across the country on February 7, 1948. Protests have been held in various regions since Feb. 8 in Jeju, and an armed struggle was decided by a 12-to-7 margin after a dispute between the Ganggun faction and moderates at a Sinchon meeting attended by executives of the Namro Party's Jeju Party in late February. In March, three young men arrested by police died of torture one after another, stirring public sentiment.


Around 2 a.m. on April 3, 1948, 350 armed forces attacked 12 of the 24 police offices in the province, and attacked the homes of the right-wing groups such as the police, the Northwestern Youth Association's lodging, and the Independence Promotion National Congress and the Daedong Youth Corps. Four police officers, eight civilians and two gunmen were killed. The armed forces have called for resistance to the suppression of police and right-wing youth groups, opposition to the establishment of a single and independent government in the South, national unification independence and anti-U.S. struggle for the old country as a sign of an armed uprising. In the early days of the uprising, the U.S. military government identified the incident as a "safe matter" for the police. On April 5, the U.S. military dispatched about 100 police officers in South Jeolla Province to the cheering squad, set up the Jeju Emergency Security Command inside the Jeju police inspection office, and promulgated the Jeju provincial government to block Jeju's maritime traffic and block the coast by mobilizing U.S. military vessels. On April 8, the Jeju Emergency Security Command issued a proclamation that the commander of the Jeju Emergency Security Command would launch a war to wipe out the armed forces, and on April 10, 100 senior cadets from the National Police Agency were dispatched to Jeju to reinforce the police force.


However, the plan to suppress the situation with the power of the cheering police and right-wing youth groups instead of drawing up fundamental measures to deal with the cause of the incident has caused a backlash from the provincial residents, which has aggravated the situation. Feeling limited in solving the situation by police force alone, the U.S. military ordered the 9th Regiment of the Guards to join the crackdown operation in cooperation with the police, and on April 18, it ordered them to negotiate with the militant leader before full-scale crackdown operations. Thus, on April 28, Lt. Gen. Kim Ik-ryul, commander of the 9th Regiment of the Guards, and Kim Dal-sam, the general manager of the armed forces, agreed to conduct peace negotiations and completely stop the fighting within 72 hours, but on May 1, the negotiations were scrapped due to the 'Oriar arson incident' caused by a right-wing youth group. Shortly after the arson attack, Kim Ik-ryul, commander of the regiment, conducted an on-site investigation and found out that the right-wing youths were responsible, but the U.S. military ignored it. The U.S. military made a documentary called May Day on Cheju-do, which was used by the armed forces to manipulate the fire in Aurari, both on the ground and in the air.


On May 3, two days after the arson attack in Aurari, the U.S. military ordered its guards to attack the militants, from which the police-oriented crackdown was handed over to the security forces. The U.S. military regime's shift to a hard-line stance was due to the decision by Lt. Gen. John R. Hodge, commander of the U.S. Forces Korea, who focused on putting the Jeju crisis under control at an early date in the run-up to the election. However, in the May 10, 1948, South Korea's sole election, Jeju Island was nullified with less than a majority of votes, and the U.S. military government tried to hold a re-election on June 23 as it continued its hard-line crackdown by appointing Colonel Roswell H. Brown as the commander of the Jeju district.


In the process, 41 guards defected from the military and joined the armed forces on May 20, and on June 18, Colonel Park Jin-kyung, who was replaced by Kim Ik-ryul, who had been promoting the book, was assassinated by his subordinates.


After a brief lull, the South Korean government of Syngman Rhee recognized the Jeju Island issue as a challenge to the legitimacy of the regime, not a regional one, as the Republic of Korea was established in the South on August 15, 1948, and the communist regime was established in the North on September 9, 1948. Rhee Syng-man's government established the Jeju Security Command on October 11 of that year, and Song Yo-chan, the 9th Regiment leader, issued a proclamation on October 17 that if he violated the law, he would be shot dead by banning unauthorized passage to areas other than 5 kilometers from the Jeju coastline. The passage ban meant that the entire middle-class village (region between the 200-meter elevation and the 600-meter elevation contours) except for the beach was not limited to the mountainous areas of Mt. Halla as mentioned in the proclamation. On October 18, the coast of Jeju was blocked, and martial law was declared throughout Jeju Island on November 17.


Since then, more than 95 percent of the villages have been burned down and many lives have been sacrificed. This led to more refugees entering the mountains and becoming members of the armed forces in order to survive the loss. Right-wing groups, including the riot police and the Northwest Youth Corps, gathered villagers and carried out so-called "massacres" that killed their parents and brothers and sisters by calling the missing young family members "the family of the fugitives," and killed the residents in groups without any trial procedures. At the end of December 1948, the riot troops were replaced by the second regiment of the commander of the fleet's navy, but the hard-line crackdown continued. The so-called Bukchon incident, which killed more than 400 residents, regardless of age and gender, was also carried out by the second regiment. Residents were also damaged by the armed forces. In villages such as Sehwa, Seong-eup and Namwon, the civilian houses were burned to death by armed forces.


The martial law was lifted on December 31, 1948, and when the Jeju District Combat Command was established in March 1949, many residents were dismissed under the amnesty policy of forgiving them if they defected to the South in parallel with the suppression. Following the successful re-election on May 10, 1949, armed general Lee Duk-koo was shot dead in June. This means that the armed forces are virtually extinct. The following year, when the Korean War broke out, a large number of members of the Press Union, Joschatas and families of the people who were admitted were arrested and executed in reserve. The number of those involved in the April 3 incident, which was also held in prisons across the country, was estimated to be around 3,000.


When the Korean War broke out, there were about 60 remaining armed forces in Mt. Halla, and on July 25, 1950, they attacked House Li by Jungmun and burned 99 civilian houses, causing damage to the police, killing right-wingers, and acquiring the necessary food. The armed forces sustained casualties from police crackdowns and defection attempts, but they continued to kidnap and recruit young men around the age of 20, maintaining 64 in March 1951 and 65 in May 1952. However, the remaining number of the armed forces was reduced to 11 in the wake of the crackdown from late October 1952 to late November 1953, and it was found that five remained on Feb. 13, 1954. The April 3 Incident was virtually closed seven years and seven months after the outbreak as the Geumjok area of Mt. Halla was fully opened on September 21, 1954. The last of the gunmen was captured on April 2, 1957.


Post-processing and controversy of cases


After the incident, the 'Special Act for the Investigation of Jeju April 3 Incident and Restoration of the Victims' Honor' was enacted and promulgated on January 12, 2000. On August 28 of that year, the 'Jeju 4th and 3rd Incident Investigation Committee and Restoration Committee for the Victims' Honor' headed by the Prime Minister was launched to launch a fact-finding mission. According to a fact-finding investigation, the committee said, "Based on the March 1, 1947, police opened fire on Jeju Island, the armed forces of the South's Jeju National Party (SNU) and the South's Jeju Island armed forces staged an armed uprising on April 3, 1948.


The number of reported victims of the incident, which began in June 2000, was tallied at 14,028 but is estimated to be higher in practice as there are unreported or unidentified victims. Meanwhile, the number of soldiers killed in the military is around 180 and the number of police killed in the April 3 incident, and members of the right-wing groups (Daedong Youth Corps, West North Youth Association, Korea Youth Corps, Korea Youth Corps, National Defense University, Special Forces, and Student Federation) are recognized as national meritaries and bereaved families by the state after undergoing a small procedure. 31 October 2003, a fact-finding commission in accordance with the opinion of the president is (Roh Moo-hyun) of the Nam-ro party, Jeju-si, Jeju-do, a clique mujangdae and the armed conflict and by state power in the course of suppression of a punitive force.Family and the Jeju, and admitted to having made huge sacrifices to issue a public apology. In addition, the April 3 Peace Park Creation Project was carried out as part of the community compensation for the April 3 Incident in Jeju, and the April 3 Peace Park was opened in Bongae-dong, Jeju City on March 28, 2008.


Jeju 4.3 Incident Timeline

Major cases in March 1947, 3.1 police shooting, March 1947, 3.10 general strike, April 1948.

4.3 Arresting of an armed uprising, April 1948, Security Forces-Military Peace Talks, May 1948.

Aurari arson attack, May 1948, the May, 5.10 election, Jeju Island invalidation, May 1948.

The appointment of Colonel Brown, commander of the Jeju District, in June 1948, the killing of Colonel Park Jin-kyung.

August 1948, South Korea's government, September 1948, North Korea's communist government.

In October 1948, Jeju Island Security Command was established, November 1948, Jeju Island's Gyeomryeong Shippo, and the operation of the Chogatohwa was launched.

January 1949, massacre of North Korean residents, March 1949, establishment of combat command in Jeju Island

May 1949, re-election of National Assemblyman on Jeju Island, June 1949, shooting Lee Duk-koo, the general manager of the armed forces, and destroying the armed forces.

June 1950, the outbreak of the Korean War, September 1954, the removal of the Geumsu area of Mt. Halla.